Skip to main content

Coins & Antiquities of Pakistan from the Ancient, Medieval, and Classical Periods: The Collection of Waleed Ziad

This series of articles on the unpublished Hunnic bronzes of the Kashmir Smast is part of a continuing project to document more than 200 hitherto unpublished varieties of coins and artifacts acquired by the author dating from the Kushano-Sasanian (circa 3rd century AD) to the Hindu Shahi (circa 9-10th century AD) periods. The Kashmir Smast caves are a series of natural limestone caves, artificially expanded from the Kushan to the Shahi periods, situated in the Babozai mountains in the Mardan Valley in Northern Pakistan. According to recent scholarship based on a rare series of bronze coins and artifacts found in the region, the caves and their adjacent valley probably comprised a sovereign kingdom in Gandhara which maintained at least partial independence for almost 500 years, from c. 4th Century AD to the 9th Century AD. For most of its history, it was ruled by White Hun (or Hephthalite) governors or princes.

Author(s):  Ziad, Waleed
Format:  Website
Publisher:  Waleed Ziad