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Enuma Elish (The Babylonian Epic of Creation)

Babylonian Creation Epic (Alternate Title)
enūma eliš (Akkadian Title)

by W.G. Lambert
Tablet I
1~When the heavens above did not exist,
2~And earth beneath had not come into being—
3~There was Apsû, the first in order, their begetter,
4~And demiurge Tia-mat, who gave birth to them all;
5~They had mingled their waters together
6~Before meadow-land had coalesced and reed-bed was to he found —
7~When not one of the gods had been formed
8~Or had come into being, when no destinies had been decreed,
9~The gods were created within them:
10~Lah(mu and Lah(amu were formed and came into being.
11~While they grew and increased in stature
12~Anšar and Kišar, who excelled them, were created.
13~They prolonged their days, they multiplied their years.
14~Anu, their son, could rival his fathers.
15~Anu, the son, equalled Anšar,
16~And Anu begat Nudimmud, his own equal.
17~Nudimmud was the champion among his fathers:
18~Profoundly discerning, wise, of robust strength;
19~Very much stronger than his father's begetter, Anšar
20~He had no rival among the gods, his brothers.
21~The divine brothers came together,
22~Their clamour got loud, throwing Tia-mat into a turmoil.
23~They jarred the nerves of Tia-mat,
24~And by their dancing they spread alarm in Anduruna.
25~Apsû did not diminish their clamour,
26~And Tia-mat was silent when confronted with them.
27~Their conduct was displeasing to her,
28~Yet though their behaviour was not good, she wished to spare them.
29~Thereupon Apsû, the begetter of the great gods,
30~Called Mummu, his vizier, and addressed him,
31~"Vizier Mummu, who gratifies my pleasure,
32~Come, let us go to Tia-mat!"
33~They went and sat, facing Tia-mat,
34~As they conferred about the gods, their sons.
35~Apsû opened his mouth
36~And addressed Tia-mat
37~"Their behaviour has become displeasing to me
38~And I cannot rest in the day-time or sleep at night.
39~I will destroy and break up their way of life
40~That silence may reign and we may sleep."
41~When Tia-mat heard this
42~She raged and cried out to her spouse,
43~She cried in distress, fuming within herself,
44~She grieved over the (plotted) evil,
45~"How can we destroy what we have given birth to?
46~Though their behaviour causes distress, let us tighten discipline graciously."
47~Mummu spoke up with counsel for Apsû—
48~(As from) a rebellious vizier was the counsel of his Mummu—
49~"Destroy, my father, that lawless way of life,
50~That you may rest in the day-time and sleep by night!"
51~Apsû was pleased with him, his face beamed
52~Because he had plotted evil against the gods, his sons.
53~Mummu put his arms around Apsû's neck,
54~He sat on his knees kissing him.
55~What they plotted in their gathering
56~Was reported to the gods, their sons.
57~The gods heard it and were frantic.
58~They were overcome with silence and sat quietly.
59~Ea, who excels in knowledge, the skilled and learned,
60~Ea, who knows everything, perceived their tricks.
61~He fashioned it and made it to be all-embracing,
62~He executed it skilfully as supreme—his pure incantation.
63~He recited it and set it on the waters,
64~He poured sleep upon him as he was slumbering deeply.
65~He put Apsû to slumber as he poured out sleep,
66~And Mummu, the counsellor, was breathless with agitation.
67~He split (Apsû's) sinews, ripped off his crown,
68~Carried away his aura and put it on himself.
69~He bound Apsû and killed him;
70~Mummu he confined and handled roughly.
71~He set his dwelling upon Apsû,
72~And laid hold on Mummu, keeping the nose-rope in his hand.
73~After Ea had bound and slain his enemies,
74~Had achieved victory over his foes,
75~He rested quietly in his chamber,
76~He called it Apsû, whose shrines he appointed.
77~Then he founded his living-quarters within it,
78~And Ea and Damkina, his wife, sat in splendour.
79~In the chamber of the destinies, the room of the archetypes,
80~The wisest of the wise, the sage of the gods, Be-l was conceived.
81~In Apsû was Marduk born,
82~In pure Apsû was Marduk born.
83~Ea his father begat him,
84~Damkina his mother bore him.
85~He sucked the breasts of goddesses,
86~A nurse reared him and filled him with terror.
87~His figure was well developed, the glance of his eyes was dazzling,
88~His growth was manly, he was mighty from the beginning.
89~Anu, his father's begetter, saw him,
90~He exulted and smiled; his heart filled with joy.
91~Anu rendered him perfect: his divinity was remarkable,
92~And he became very lofty, excelling them in his attributes.
93~His members were incomprehensibly wonderful,
94~Incapable of being grasped with the mind, hard even to look on.
95~Four were his eyes, four his ears,
96~Flame shot forth as he moved his lips.
97~His four ears grew large,
93~And his eyes likewise took in everything.
99~His figure was lofty and superior in comparison with the gods,
100~His limbs were surpassing, his nature was superior.
101~'Mari-utu, Mari-utu,
102~The Son, the Sun-god, the Sun-god of the gods.'
103~He was clothed with the aura of the Ten Gods, so exalted was his strength,
104~The Fifty Dreads were loaded upon him.
105~Anu formed and gave birth to the four winds,
106~He delivered them to him, "My son, let them whirl!"
107~He formed dust and set a hurricane to drive it,
108~He made a wave to bring consternation on Tia-mat.
109~Tia-mat was confounded; day and night she was frantic.
110~The gods took no rest, they . . . . . . .
111~In their minds they plotted evil,
112~And addressed their mother Tia-mat,
113~"When Apsû, your spouse, was killed,
114~You did not go at his side, but sat quietly.
115~The four dreadful winds have been fashioned
116~To throw you into confusion, and we cannot sleep.
117~You gave no thought to Apsû, your spouse,
113~Nor to Mummu, who is a prisoner. Now you sit alone.
119~Henceforth you will be in frantic consternation!
120~And as for us, who cannot rest, you do not love us!
121~Consider our burden, our eyes are hollow.
122~Break the immovable yoke that we may sleep.
123~Make battle, avenge them!
124~[ . . ] . . . . reduce to nothingness!
125~Tia-mat heard, the speech pleased her,
126~(She said,) "Let us make demons, [as you] have advised."
127~The gods assembled within her.
128~They conceived [evil] against the gods their begetters.
129~They . . . . . and took the side of Tia-mat,
130~Fiercely plotting, unresting by night and day,
131~Lusting for battle, raging, storming,
132~They set up a host to bring about conflict.
133~Mother H(ubur, who forms everything,
134~Supplied irresistible weapons, and gave birth to giant serpents.
135~They had sharp teeth, they were merciless . . . .
136~With poison instead of blood she filled their bodies.
137~She clothed the fearful monsters with dread,
138~She loaded them with an aura and made them godlike.
139~(She said,) "Let their onlooker feebly perish,
140~May they constantly leap forward and never retire."
141~She created the Hydra, the Dragon, the Hairy Hero
142~The Great Demon, the Savage Dog, and the Scorpion-man,
143~Fierce demons, the Fish-man, and the Bull-man,
144~Carriers of merciless weapons, fearless in the face of battle.
145~Her commands were tremendous, not to be resisted.
146~Altogether she made eleven of that kind.
147~Among the gods, her sons, whom she constituted her host,
148~She exalted Qingu, and magnified him among them.
149~The leadership of the army, the direction of the host,
150~The bearing of weapons, campaigning, the mobilization of conflict,
151~The chief executive power of battle, supreme command,
152~She entrusted to him and set him on a throne,
153~"I have cast the spell for you and exalted you in the host of the gods,
154~I have delivered to you the rule of all the gods.
155~You are indeed exalted, my spouse, you are renowned,
156~Let your commands prevail over all the Anunnaki."
157~She gave him the Tablet of Destinies and fastened it to his breast,
158~(Saying) "Your order may not be changed; let the utterance of your mouth be firm."
159~After Qingu was elevated and had acquired the power of Anuship,
160~He decreed the destinies for the gods, her sons:
161~"May the utterance of your mouths subdue the fire-god,
162~May your poison by its accumulation put down aggression."
Tablet II
1~Tia-mat gathered together her creation
2~And organised battle against the gods, her offspring.
3~Henceforth Tia-mat plotted evil because of Apsû
4~It became known to Ea that she had arranged the conflict.
5~Ea heard this matter,
6~He lapsed into silence in his chamber and sat motionless.
7~After he had reflected and his anger had subsided
8~He directed his steps to Anšar his father.
9~He entered the presence of the father of his begetter, Anšar,
10~And related to him all of Tia-mat's plotting.
11~"My father, Tia-mat our mother has conceived a hatred for us,
12~She has established a host in her savage fury.
13~All the gods have turned to her,
14~Even those you (pl.) begat also take her side
15~They . . . . . and took the side of Tia-mat,
16~Fiercely plotting, unresting by night and day,
17~Lusting for battle, raging, storming,
18~They set up a host to bring about conflict.
19~Mother H(ubur, who forms everything,
20~Supplied irresistible weapons, and gave birth to giant serpents.
21~ They had sharp teeth, they were merciless.
22~With poison instead of blood she filled their bodies.
23~She clothed the fearful monsters with dread,
24~She loaded them with an aura and made them godlike.
25~ (She said,) "Let their onlooker feebly perish,
26~May they constantly leap forward and never retire."
27~She created the Hydra, the Dragon, the Hairy Hero,
28~The Great Demon, the Savage Dog, and the Scorpion-man,
29~Fierce demons, the Fish-man, and the Bull-man,
30~Carriers of merciless weapons, fearless in the face of battle.
31~Her commands were tremendous, not to be resisted.
32~Altogether she made eleven of that kind.
33~Among the gods, her sons, whom she constituted her host,
34~She exalted Qingu and magnified him among them.
35~The leadership of the army, the direction of the host,
36~The bearing of weapons, campaigning, the mobilization of conflict,
37~The chief executive power of battle supreme command,
38~She entrusted to him and set him on a throne.
39~"I have cast the spell for you and exalted you in the host of the gods,
40~I have delivered to you the rule of all the gods.
41~You are indeed exalted, my spouse, you are renowned,
42~Let your commands prevail over all the Anunnaki."
43~She gave him the tablet of Destinies and fastened it to his breast,
44~(Saying) "Your order may not he changed; let the utterance of your mouth be firm."
45~After Qingu was elevated and had acquired the power of Anuship
46~He decreed the destinies for the gods. her sons:
47~"May the utterance of your mouths subdue the fire-god,
48~May your poison by its accumulation put down aggression."
49~Anšar heard; the matter was profoundly disturbing.
50~ He cried "Woe!" and bit his lip.
51~ His heart was in fury, his mind could not be calmed.
52~Over Ea his son his cry was faltering.
53~"My son, you who provoked the war,
54~Take responsibility for whatever you alone have done!
55~You set out and killed Apsû,
56~And as for Tia-mat, whom you made furious, where is her equal?"
57~The gatherer of counsel, the learned prince,
58~ The creator of wisdom, the god Nudimmud
59~With soothing words and calming utterance
60~Gently answered [his] father Anšar
61~"My father, deep mind, who decrees destiny,
62~Who has the power to bring into being and destroy,
63~Anšar, deep mind, who decrees destiny,
64~Who has the power to bring into being and to destroy,
65~I want to say something to you, calm down for me for a moment
66~And consider that I performed a helpful deed.
67~Before I killed Apsû
68~Who could have seen the present situation?
69~Before I quickly made an end of him
70~What were the circumstances were I to destroy him?
71~Anšar heard, the words pleased him.
72~His heart relaxed to speak to Ea,
73~"My son, your deeds are fitting for a god,
74~You are capable of a fierce, unequalled blow . . [ . . . ]
75~Ea, your deeds are fitting for a god,
76~You are capable of a fierce, unequalled blow . . [ . . . ]
77~Go before Tia-mat and appease her attack,
78~. . [ . . . ] . . . her fury with [your] incantation."
79~He heard the speech of Anšar his father,
80~He took the road to her, proceeded on the route to her.
81~He went, he perceived the tricks of Tia-mat,
82~[He stopped], fell silent, and turned back.
83~[He] entered the presence of august Anšar
84~Penitently addressing him,
85~"[My father], Tia-mat's deeds are too much for me.
86~I perceived her planning, and [my] incantation was not equal (to it).
87~Her strength is mighty, she is full of dread,
88~She is altogether very strong, none can go against her.
89~Her very loud cry did not diminish,
90~[I became afraid] of her cry and turned back.
91~[My father], do not lose hope, send a second person against her.
92~Though a woman's strength is very great, it is not equal to a man's.
93~Disband her cohorts, break up her plans
94~Before she lays her hands on us."
95~Anšar cried out in intense fury,
96~Addressing Anu his son,
97~"Honoured son, hero, warrior,
98~Whose strength is mighty, whose attack is irresistible
99~Hasten and stand before Tia-mat,
100~Appease her rage that her heart may relax
101~If she does not harken to your words,
102~Address to her words of petition that she may be appeased."
103~He heard the speech of Anšar his father,
104~He took the road to her, proceeded on the route to her.
105~Anu went, he perceived the tricks of Tia-mat,
106~He stopped, fell silent, and turned back.
107~He entered the presence of Anšar the father who begat him,
108~Penitently addressing him.
109~"My father, Tia-mat's [deeds] are too much for me.
110~I perceived her planning, but my [incantation] was not [equal] (to it).
111~Her strength is mighty, she is [full] of dread,
112~She is altogether very strong, no one [can go against her].
113~Her very loud noise does not diminish,
114~I became afraid of her cry and turned back.
115~My father, do not lose hope, send another person against her.
116~Though a woman's strength is very great, it is not equal to a man's.
117~Disband her cohorts, break up her plans,
118~Before she lays her hands on us."
119~Anšar lapsed into silence, staring at the ground,
120~He nodded to Ea, shaking his head.
121~The Igigi and all the Anunnaki had assembled,
122~They sat in tight-lipped silence.
123~No god would go to face . . [ . . ]
124~Would go out against Tia-mat . . . . [ . . ]
125~Yet the lord Anšar, the father of the great gods,
126~Was angry in his heart, and did not summon any one.
127~A mighty son, the avenger of his father,
128~He who hastens to war, the warrior Marduk
129~Ea summoned (him) to his private chamber
130~To explain to him his plans.
131~"Marduk, give counsel, listen to your father.
132~You are my son, who gives me pleasure,
133~Go reverently before Anšar,
134~Speak, take your stand, appease him with your glance."
135~Be-l rejoiced at his father's words,
136~He drew near and stood in the presence of Anšar.
137~Anšar saw him, his heart filled with satisfaction,
138~He kissed his lips and removed his fear.
139~"My [father] do not hold your peace, but speak forth,
140~I will go and fulfil your desires!
141~[Anšar,] do not hold your peace, but speak forth,
142~I will go and fulfil your desires!
143~Which man has drawn up his battle array against you?
144~And will Tia-mat, who is a woman, attack you with (her) weapons?
145~["My father], begetter, rejoice and be glad,
146~Soon you will tread on the neck of Tia-mat!
147~[Anšar], begetter, rejoice and be glad,
148~Soon you will tread on the neck of Tia-mat!
149~["Go,] my son, conversant with all knowledge,
150~Appease Tia-mat with your pure spell.
151~Drive the storm chariot without delay,
152~And with a [ . . ] which cannot be repelled turn her back."
153~Be-l rejoiced at his father's words,
154~With glad heart he addressed his father,
155~"Lord of the gods, Destiny of the great gods,
156~If I should become your avenger,
157~If I should bind Tia-mat and preserve you,
158~Convene an assembly and proclaim for me an exalted destiny.
159~Sit, all of you, in Upšukkinakku with gladness,
160~And let me, with my utterance, decree destinies instead of you.
161~Whatever I instigate must not be changed,
162~Nor may my command be nullified or altered."
Tablet III
1~Anšar opened his mouth
2~And addressed Kaka, his vizier,
3~"Vizier Kaka, who gratifies my pleasure,
4~I will send you to Lah(mu and Lah(amu.
5~You are skilled in making inquiry, learned in address.
6~Have the gods, my fathers, brought to my presence.
7~Let all the gods be brought,
8~Let them confer as they sit at table.
9~Let them eat grain, let them drink ale,
10~Let them decree the destiny for Marduk their avenger.
11~Go, be gone, Kaka, stand before them,
12~And repeat to them all that I tell you:
13~" Anšar, your son, has sent me,
14~And I am to explain his plans.
15-52~= II, 11*-48~(* instead of ' "My father,' put ' "Thus,' )
53~I sent Anu, but he could not face her.
54~Nudimmud took fright and retired.
55~Marduk, the sage of the gods, your son, has come forward,
56~He has determined to meet Tia-mat.
57~He has spoken to me and said,
58-64~= II, 156*-162~(* begin with quotation marks: "If )
65~Quickly, now, decree your destiny for him without delay,
66~That he may go and face your powerful enemy."
67~Kaka went. He directed his steps
68~To Lah(mu and Lah(amu, the gods his fathers.
69~He prostrated himself, he kissed the ground before them,
70~He got up, saying to them he stood,
71-124. = II, 13-66
125~When Lah(h(a and Lah(amu heard, they cried aloud.
126~All the Igigi moaned in distress,
127~"What has gone wrong that she took this decision about us?
128~We did not know what Tia-mat was doing."
129~All the great gods who decree destinies
130~Gathered as they went,
131~They entered the presence of Anšar and became filled with [joy],
132~They kissed one another as they . [ . . ] in the assembly.
133~They conferred as they sat at table,
134~They ate grain, they drank ale.
135~They strained the sweet liquor through their straws,
136~As they drank beer and felt good,
137~They became quite carefree, their mood was merry,
138~And they decreed the fate for Marduk, their avenger.
Tablet IV
1~They set a lordly dais for him
2~And he took his seat before his fathers to receive kingship.
3~(They said,) "You are the most honoured among the great gods,
4~Your destiny is unequalled, your command is like Anu's.
5~Marduk, you are the most honoured among the great gods,
6~Your destiny is unequalled, your command is like Anu's.
7~Henceforth your order will not be annulled,
8~It is in your power to exalt and abase.
9~Your utterance is sure, your command cannot be rebelled against,
10~None of the gods will transgress the line you draw.
11~Shrines for all the gods needs provisioning,
12~That you may be established where their sanctuaries are.
13~You are Marduk, our avenger,
14~We have given you kingship over the sum of the whole universe.
15~Take your seat in the assembly, let your word be exalted,
16~Let your weapons not miss the mark, but may they slay your enemies.
17~Be-l, spare him who trusts in you,
18~But destroy the god who set his mind on evil."
19~They set a constellation in the middle
20~And addressed Marduk, their son,
21~"Your destiny, Be-l, is superior to that of all the gods,
22~Command and bring about annihilation and re-creation.
23~Let the constellation disappear at your utterance,
24~With a second command let the constellation reappear."
25~He gave the command and the constellation disappeared,
26~With a second command the constellation came into being again.
27~When the gods, his fathers, saw (the effect of) his utterance,
28~They rejoiced and offered congratulation: "Marduk is the king!"
29~They added to him a mace, a throne, and a rod,
30~They gave him an irresistible weapon that overwhelms the foe:
31~(They said,) "Go, cut Tia-mat's throat,
32~And let the winds bear up her blood to give the news."
33~The gods, his fathers, decreed the destiny of Be-l,
34~And set him on the road, the way of prosperity and success.
35~He fashioned a bow and made it his weapon,
36~ He set an arrow in place, put the bow string on.
37~He took up his club and held it in his right hand,
38~His bow and quiver he hung at his side.
39~He placed lightning before him,
40~And filled his body with tongues of flame.
41~He made a net to enmesh the entrails of Tia-mat,
42~And stationed the four winds that no part of her escape.
43~The South Wind, the North Wind, the East Wind, the West Wind,
44~He put beside his net, winds given by his father, Anu.
45~He fashioned the Evil Wind, the Dust Storm, Tempest,
46~The Four-fold Wind, the Seven-fold Wind, the Chaos-spreading Wind, the . . . . .Wind.
47~He sent out the seven winds that he had fashioned,
48~And they took their stand behind him to harass Tia-mat's entrails.
49~Be-l took up the Storm-flood, his great weapon,
50~He rode the fearful chariot of the irresistible storm.
51~Four steeds he yoked to it and harnessed them to it,
52~The Destroyer, The Merciless, The Trampler, The Fleet.
53~Their lips were parted, their teeth bore venom,
54~They were strangers to weariness, trained to sweep forward.
55~At his right hand he stationed raging battle and strife,
56~On the left, conflict that overwhelms a united battle array.
57~He was clad in a tunic, a fearful coat of mail,
58~And on has head he wore an aura of terror.
59~Be-l proceeded and set out on his way,
60~He set his face toward the raging Tia-mat.
61~In his lips he held a spell,
62~He grasped a plant to counter poison in his hand,
63~Thereupon they milled around him, the gods milled around him,
64~The gods, his fathers, milled around him, the gods milled around him.
65~Be-l drew near, surveying the maw of Tia-mat,
66~He observed the tricks of Qingu, her spouse.
67~As he looked, he lost his nerve,
68~His determination went and he faltered.
69~His divine aides, who were marching at his side,
70~Saw the warrior, the foremost, and their vision became dim.
71~Tia-mat cast her spell without turning her neck,
72~In her lips she held untruth and lies,
73~"[ . ] . . . . . . . . . . . . .
74~In their [ . ] . they have assembled by you."
75~Be-l [lifted up] the Storm-flood, his great weapon,
76~And with these words threw it at the raging Tia-mat,
77~"Why are you aggressive and arrogant,
78~And strive to provoke battle?
79~The younger generation have shouted, outraging their elders,
80~But you, their mother, hold pity in contempt.
81~Qingu you have named to be your spouse,
82~And you have improperly appointed him to the rank of Anuship.
83~Against Anšar, king of the gods, you have stirred up trouble,
84~And against the gods, my fathers, your trouble is established.
85~Deploy your troops, gird on your weapons,
86~You and I will take our stand and do battle."
87~When Tia-mat heard this
88~She went insane and lost her reason.
89~Tia-mat cried aloud and fiercely,
90~All her lower members trembled beneath her.
91~She was reciting an incantation, kept reciting her spell,
92~While the (battle-)gods were sharpening their weapons of war.
93~Tia-mat and Marduk, the sage of the gods, came together,
94~Joining in strife, drawing near to battle.
95~Be-l spread out his net and enmeshed her;
96~He let loose the Evil Wind, the rear guard, in her face.
97~Tia-mat opened her mouth to swallow it,
98~She let the Evil Wind in so that she could not close her lips.
99~The fierce winds weighed down her belly,
100~Her inwards were distended and she opened her mouth wide.
101~He let fly an arrow and pierced her belly,
102~He tore open her entrails and slit her inwards,
103~He bound her and extinguished her life,
104~He threw down her corpse and stood on it.
105~After he had killed Tia-mat, the leader,
106~Her assembly dispersed, her host scattered.
107~Her divine aides, who went beside her,
108~In trembling and fear beat a retreat.
109~ . . . . to save their lives,
110~But they were completely surrounded, unable to escape.
111~He bound them and broke their weapons,
112~And they lay enmeshed, sitting in a snare,
113~Hiding in corners, filled with grief,
114~Bearing his punishment, held in a prison.
115~The eleven creatures who were laden with fearfulness,
116~The throng of devils who went as grooms at her right hand,
117~He put ropes upon them and bound their arms,
118~Together with their warfare he trampled them beneath him.
119~Now Qingu, who had risen to power among them,
120~He bound and reckoned with the Dead Gods.
121~He took from him the Tablet of Destinies, which was not properly his,
122~Sealed it with a seal and fastened it to his own breast.
123~After the warrior Marduk had bound and slain his enemies,
124~Had . . . . the arrogant enemy . . . ,
125~Had established victory for Anšar over all his foes,
126~Had fulfilled the desire of Nudimmud,
127~He strengthened his hold on the Bound Gods,
128~And returned to Tia-mat, whom he had bound.
129~Be-l placed his feet on the lower parts of Tia-mat
130~And with his merciless club smashed her skull.
131~He severed her arteries
132~And let the North wind bear up (her blood) to give the news.
133~His fathers saw it and were glad and exulted;
134~They brought gifts and presents to him.
135~Be-l rested, surveying the corpse,
136~In order to divide the lump by a clever scheme.
137~He split her into two like a dried fish:
138~One half of her he set up and stretched out as the heavens.
139~He stretched the skin and appointed a watch
140~With the instruction not to let her waters escape.
141~He crossed over the heavens, surveyed the celestial parts,
142~And adjusted them to match the Apsû, Nudimmud's abode.
143~Be-l measured the shape of the Apsû
144~And set up Ešarra, a replica of Ešgalla.
145~In Ešgalla, Ešarra which he had built, and the heavens,
146~He settled in their shrines Anu, Enlil, and Ea.
Tablet V
1~He fashioned heavenly stations for the great gods,
2~And set up constellations, the patterns of the stars.
3~He appointed the year, marked off divisions,
4~And set up three stars each for the twelve months.
5~After he had organized the year,
6~He established the heavenly station of Ne-beru to fix the stars' intervals.
7~That none should transgress or be slothful
8~He fixed the heavenly stations of Enlil and Ea with it.
9~Gates he opened on both sides,
10~And put strong bolts at the left and the right.
11~He placed the heights (of heaven) in her (Tia-mat's) belly,
12~He created Nannar, entrusting to him the night.
13~He appointed him as the jewel of the night to fix the days,
14~And month by month without ceasing he elevated him with a crown,
15~(Saying,) "Shine over the land at the beginning of the month,
16~Resplendent with horns to fix six days.
17~On the seventh day the crown will be half size,
18~On the fifteenth day, halfway through each month, stand in opposition.
19~When Šamaš [sees] you on the horizon,
20~Diminish in the proper stages and shine backwards.
21~On the 29th day, draw near to the path of Šamaš,
22~. [ . . ] the 30th day, stand in conjunction and rival Šamaš.
23~I have ( . . . . ] . the sign, follow its track,
24~Draw near . . ( . . . . . ) give judgment.
25~. [ . . . . ] . Šamaš, constrain [murder] and violence,
26~. [ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] . me.
35~At the end [ . . .
36~Let there [be] the 29th day [ . . . "
37~After [he had . . . . ] the decrees [ . . .
38~The organization of front and . [ . . .
39~He made the day [ . . .
40~Let the year be equally [ . . .
41~At the new year [ . . .
42~The year . . . . . [ . . .
43~Let there be regularly [ . . .
44~The projecting bolt [ . . .
45~After he had [ . . .
46~The watches of night and day [ . . .
47~The foam which Tia-mat [ . . .
48~Marduk fashioned [ . . .
49~He gathered it together and made it into clouds.
50~The raging of the winds, violent rainstorms,
51~The billowing of mist—the accumulation of her spittle—
52~He appointed for himself and took them in his hand.
53~He put her head in position and poured out . . [ . . ] .
54~He opened the abyss and it was sated with water.
55~From her two eyes he let the Euphrates and Tigris flow,
56~He blocked her nostrils, but left . .
57~He heaped up the distant [mountains] on her breasts,
58~He bored wells to channel the springs.
59~He twisted her tail and wove it into the Durmah(u,
60~[ . . . ] . . the Apsû beneath his feet.
61~[He set up] her crotch—it wedged up the heavens—
62~[(Thus) the half of her] he stretched out and made it firm as the earth.
63~[After] he had finished his work inside Tia-mat,
64~[He spread] his net and let it right out.
65~He surveyed the heavens and the earth . . [ . ] .
66~[ . . ] their bonds . . . . . . .
67~After he had formulated his regulations and composed [his] decrees,
68~He attached guide-ropes and put them in Ea's hands.
69~[The Tablet] of Destinies which Qingu had taken and carried,
70~He took charge of it as a trophy (?) and presented it to Anu.
71~[The . ] . of battle, which he had tied on or had put on his head,
72~[ . ] . he brought before his fathers.
73~[Now] the eleven creatures to which Tia-mat had given birth and . . . ,
74~He broke their weapons and bound them (the creatures) to his feet.
75~He made images of them and stationed them at the [Gate] of the Apsû,
76~To be a sign never to be forgotten.
77~[The gods] saw it and were jubilantly happy,
78~(That is,) Lah(mu, Lah(amu and all his fathers.
79~Anšar [embraced] him and published abroad his title, "Victorious King,"
80~Anu, Enlil and Ea gave him gifts.
81~Mother Damkina, who bore him, hailed him,
82~With a clean festal robe she made his face shine.
83~To Usmû, who held her present to give the news,
84~[He entrusted] the vizierate of the Apsû and the care of the holy places.
85~The Igigi assembled and all did obeisance to him,
86~Every one of the Anunnaki was kissing his feet.
87~They all [gathered] to show their submission,
88~[ . . . ] . they stood, they bowed down, "Behold the king!"
89~His fathers [ . . . ] . and took their fill of his beauty,
90~Be-l listened to their utterance, being girded with the dust of battle.
91~. [ . . . . . . . . . . . . ] . . . . . . .
92~Anointing his body with . [ . . . ] cedar perfume.
93~He clothed himself in [his] lordly robe,
94~With a crown of terror as a royal aura.
95~He took up his club and held it in his right hand,
96~~. . . ] . he grasped in his left.
97~[ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ]
98~~. . . ] . he set his feet.
99~He put upon . [ . . .
100~The sceptre of prosperity and success [he hung] at his side.
101~After [he had . . . ] the aura [
102~He adorned(?) his sack, the Apsû, with a fearful [ . . ]~
103~Was settled like . [ . . .
104~In [his] throne room [ . . .
105~In his cella [ . . .
106~Every one of the gods [ . . .
107~Lah(mu and Lah(amu . [ . . . . . . . ] .
108~Opened their mouths and [addressed] the Igigi gods,
109~"Previously Marduk was our beloved son,
110~Now he is your king, heed his command!"
111~Next, they all spoke up together,
112~"His name is Lugaldimmerankia, trust in him!"
113~When they had given kingship to Marduk,
114~They addressed to him a benediction for prosperity and success,
115~"Henceforth you are the caretaker of our shrine,
116~Whatever you command, we will do!"
117~Marduk opened his mouth to speak
118~And addressed the gods his fathers,
119~"Above the Apsû, the emerald (?) abode,
120~Opposite Ešarra, which I built for you,
121~Beneath the celestial parts, whose floor I made firm,
122~I will build a house to be my luxurious abode.
123~Within it I will establish its shrine,
124~I will found my chamber and establish my kingship.
125~When you come up from the Apsû to make a decision
126~This will be your resting place before the assembly.
127~When you descend from heaven to make a decision
128~This will be your resting place before the assembly.
129~I shall call its name 'Babylon', "The Homes of the Great Gods",
130~Within it we will hold a festival: that will be the evening festival.
131~[The gods], his fathers, [heard] this speech of his,
132~. [ . . . . . . . . . . . . ] . they said,
133~"With regard to all that your hands have made,
134~Who has your [ . . . ]?
135~With regard to the earth that your hands have made,
136~Who has your [ . . . 1?
137~In Babylon, as you have named it,
138~Put our [resting place] for ever.
139~. [ . . . . . . . . . ] let them our bring regular offerings
140~. [ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] . .
141~Whoever [ . . . ] our tasks which we . [ . . .
142~Therein [ . . . . . ] its toil . [ . . .
143~[ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ]
144~They rejoiced [ . . . . . . . . . . . ] . . [ . . .
145~The gods . [ . . . . . . . . . . . . . ]
146~He who knows [ . . . . . . . . . ] . them
147~He opened [his mouth showing] them light,
148~. . [ . . . . . . . . . ] his speech . [ . ]
149~He made wide [ . . . . . . . . ] . them [ . . .
150~And . [ . . . . . . . . . . . . ] . . . . .
151~The gods bowed down, speaking to him,
152~They addressed Lugaldimmerankia, their lord,
153~"Formerly, lord, [you were our beloved] son,
154~Now you are our king, . . [ . . . ]
155~He who . [ . ] . [ . ] preserved [us]
156~. . [. . . ] the aura of club and sceptre.
157~Let him conceive plans [ . . . . ] . . [ . . . ]
158~[ . ] . . [ . . . . . . that] we . [ . . ."
Tablet VI
1~When Marduk heard the gods' speech
2~He conceived a desire to accomplish clever things.
3~He opened his mouth addressing Ea,
4~He counsels that which he had pondered in his heart,
5~"I will bring together blood to form bone,
6~I will bring into being Lullû, whose name shall be 'man'.
7~I will create Lullû—man
8~On whom the toil of the gods will be laid that they may rest.
9~I will skilfully alter the organization of the gods:
10~Though they are honoured as one, they shall be divided into two."
11~Ea answered, as he addressed a word to him,
12~Expressing his comments on the resting of the gods,
13~"Let one brother of theirs be given up.
14~Let him perish that people may be fashioned.
15~Let the great gods assemble
16~And let the guilty one be given up that they may be confirmed."
17~Marduk assembled the great gods,
18~Using gracious direction as he gave his order,
19~As he spoke the gods heeded him:
20~The king addressed a word to the Anunnaki,
21~"Your former oath was true indeed,
22~(Now also) tell me the solemn truth:
23~Who is the one who instigated warfare,
24~Who made Tia-mat rebel, and set battle in motion?
25~Let him who instigated warfare be given up
26~That I may lay his punishment on him; but you sit and rest.
27~The Igigi, the great gods, answered him,
28~That is, Lugaldimmerankia, the counsellor of the gods, the lord,
29~"Qingu is the one who instigated warfare,
30~Who made Tia-mat rebel and set battle in motion."
31~They bound him, holding him before Ea,
32~They inflicted the penalty on him and severed his blood-vessels.
33~From his blood he (Ea) created mankind,
34~On whom he imposed the service of the gods, and set the gods free.
35~After the wise Ea had created mankind
36~And had imposed the service of the gods upon them—
37~That task is beyond comprehension
38~For Nudimmud performed the creation with the skill of Marduk—
39~King Marduk divided the gods,
40~All the Anunnaki into upper and lower groups.
41~He assigned 300 in the heavens to guard the decrees of Anu
42~And appointed them as a guard.
43~Next he arranged the organization of the netherworld.
44~In heaven and netherworld he stationed 600 gods.
45~After he had arranged all the decrees,
46~And had distributed incomes among the Anunnaki of heaven and netherworld,
47~The Anunnaki opened their mouths
48~And addressed their lord Marduk,
49~"Now, lord, seeing you have established our freedom
50~What favour can we do for you?
51~Let us make a shrine of great renown:
52~Your chamber will be our resting place wherein we may repose.
53~Let us erect a shrine to house a pedestal
54~Wherein we may repose when we finish (the work)."
55~When Marduk heard this,
56~He beamed as brightly as the light of day,
57~"Build Babylon, the task you have sought.
58~Let bricks for it be moulded, and raise the shrine!"
59~The Anunnaki wielded the pick.
60~For one year they made the needed bricks.
61~When the second year arrived,
62~They raised the peak of Esagil, a replica of the Apsû.
63~They built the lofty temple tower of the Apsû
64~And for Anu, Enlil, and Ea they established its . . as a dwelling.
65~He sat in splendour before them,
66~Suveying its horns, which were level with the base of Ešarra.
67~After they had completed the work on Esagil
68~All the Anunnaki constructed their own shrines.
69~{300 Igigi of heaven and 600 of the Apsû, all of them, had assembled.}
70~Be-l seated the gods, his fathers, at the banquet
71~In the lofty shrine which they had built for his dwelling,
72~(Saying,) "This is Babylon, your fixed dwelling,
73~Take your pleasure here! Sit down in joy!
74~The great gods sat down,
75~Beer-mugs were set out and they sat at the banquet.
76~After they had enjoyed themselves inside
77~They held a service in awesome Esagil.
78~The regulations and all the rules were confirmed:
79~All the gods divided the stations of heaven and netherwor1d.
80~The college of the Fifty great gods took their seats,
81~The Seven gods of destinies were appointed to give decisions.
82~Be-l received his weapon, the bow, and laid it before them:
83~His divine fathers saw the net which he had made.
84~His fathers saw how skilfully wrought was the structure of the bow
85~As they praised what he had made.
86~Anu lifted it up in the divine assembly,
87~He kissed the bow, saying, "It is my daughter!"
88~Thus he called the names of the bow:
89~"Long Stick" was the first; the second was, "May it hit the mark."
90~With the third name, "Bow Star", he made it to shine in the sky,
91~He fixed its heavenly position along with its divine brothers.
92~After Anu had decreed the destiny of the bow,
93~He set down a royal throne, a lofty one even for a god,
94~Anu set it there in the assembly of the gods.
95~The great gods assembled,
96~They exalted the destiny of Marduk and did obeisance.
97~They invoked a curse on themselves
98~And took an oath with water and oil, and put their hands to their throats.
99~They granted him the right to exercise kingship over the gods,
100~They confirmed him as lord of the gods of heaven and netherworld.
101~Anšar gave him his exalted name, Asalluh(i
102~"At the mention of his name, let us show submission!
103~When he speaks, let the gods heed him,
104~Let his command be superior in upper and lower regions.
105~May the son, our avenger, be exalted,
106~Let his lordship be superior and himself without rival.
107~Let him shepherd the black-heads, his creatures,
108~Let them tell of his character to future days without forgetting.
109~Let him establish lavish food offerings for his fathers,
110~Let him provide for their maintenance and be caretaker of their sanctuaries,
111~Let him burn incense to rejoice their sanctums.
112~Let him do on earth the same as he has done in heaven:
113~Let him appoint the black-heads to worship him.
114~The subject humans should take note and call on their gods,
115~Since he commands they should heed their goddesses,
116~Let food offerings be brought [for] (?) their gods and goddesses,
117~May they (?) not be forgotten, may they remember their gods,
118~May they . . . their . . , may they . . their shrines.
119~Though the black-heads worship some one, some another god,
120~He is the god of each and every one of us!
121~Come, let us call the fifty names
122~Of him whose character is resplendent, whose achievement is the same.
123~(1) MARDUK
As he was named by his father Anu from his birth,
124~Who supplies pasturage and watering, making the stables flourish.
125~Who bound the boastful with his weapon, the storm flood,
126~And saved the gods, his fathers, from distress.
127~He is the son, the sun-god of the gods, he is dazzling,
128~Let them ever walk in his bright light.
129~On the peoples that he created, the living beings,
130~He imposed the service of the gods and they took rest.
131~Creation and annihilation, forgiveness and exacting the penalty
132~Occur at his command, so let them fix their eyes on him.
133~(2) Marukka: he is the god who created them
134~Who put the Anunnaki at ease, the Igigi at rest.
135~(3) Marutukku: he is the support of land, city, and its peoples,
136~Henceforth let the peoples ever heed him.
137~(4) Meršakušu: fierce yet deliberating, angry yet relenting,
138~His mind is wide, his heart is all-embracing.
139~(5) Lugaldimmerankia is the name by which we all called him,
140~Whose command we have exalted above that of the gods his fathers.
141~He is the lord of all the gods of heaven and netherworld,
142~The king at whose injunctions the gods in upper and lower regions shudder.
143~(6) Narilugaldimmerankia is the name we gave him, the mentor of every god,
144~Who established our dwellings in heaven and netherworld in time of trouble,
145~Who distributed the heavenly stations between Igigi and Anunnaki,
146~Let the gods tremble at his name and quake on their seats.
147~(7) Asalluh(i is the name by which his father Anu called him,
148~He is the light of the gods, a mighty hero,
149~Who, as his name says, is a protecting angel for god and land,
150~Who by a terrible combat saved our dwelling in time of trouble.
151~(8) Asalluh(i-Namtilla they called him secondly, the life-giving god,
152~Who, in accordance with the form (of) his (name), restored all the ruined gods,
153~The lord, who brought to life the dead gods by his pure incantation,
154~Let us praise him as the destroyer of the crooked enemies.
155~(9) Asalluh(i-Namru, as his name is called thirdly,
156~The pure god, who cleanses our character."
157~Anšar, Lah(mu, and Lah(amu (each) called him by three of his names,
158~Then they addressed the gods, their sons,
159~"We have each called him by three of his names,
160~Now you call his names, like us."
161~The gods rejoiced as they heard their speech,
162~In Upšuukkinaki they held a conference,
163~"Of the warrior son, our avenger,
164~Of the provisioner, let us extol the name."
165~They sat down in their assembly, summoning the destinies,
166~And with all due rites they called his name:
Tablet VII
1~(10) Asarre, the giver of arable land who established plough-land,
2~The creator of barley and flax, who made plant life grow.
3~(11) Asaralim, who is revered in the counsel chamber, whose counsel excels,
4~The gods heed it and grasp fear of him.
5~(12) Asaralimnunna, the noble, the light of the father, his begetter,
6~Who directs the decrees of Anu, Enlil, and Ea, that is Ninšiku.
7~He is their provisioner, who assigns their incomes,
8~Whose turban multiplies abundance for the land.
9~(13) Tutu is he, who accomplishes their renovation,
10~Let him purify their sanctuaries that they may repose.
11~Let him fashion an incantation that the gods may rest,
12~Though they rise up in fury, let them withdraw.
13~He is indeed exalted in the assembly of the gods, his [fathers],
14~No one among the gods can [equal] him.
15~(14) Tutu-Ziukkinna, the life of [his] host,
16~Who established, the pure heavens for the gods,
17~Who took charge of their courses, who appointed [their stations],
16~May he not be forgotten among mortals, but [let them remember] his deeds.
19~(15) Tutu-Ziku they called him thirdly, the establisher of purification,
20~The god of the pleasant breeze, lord of success and obedience,
21~Who produces bounty and wealth, who establishes abundance,
22~Who turns everything scant that we have into profusion,
23~Whose p1easant breeze we sniffed in time of terrible trouble,
24~Let men command that his praises be constantly uttered, let them offer worship to
25~As (16) Tutu-Agaku, fourthly, let humans extol him,
26~Lord of the pure incantation, who brought the dead back to life,
27~Who showed mercy on the Bound Gods,
28~Who threw the imposed yoke on the gods, his enemies,
29~And to spare them created mankind.
30~The merciful, in whose power it is to restore to life,
31~Let his words be sure and not forgotten
32~From the mouths of the black-heads, his creatures.
33~As (17) Tutu-Tuku, fifthly, let their mouth give expression to his pure spell,
34~Who extirpated all the wicked by his pure incantation.
35~(18) Šazu, who knew the heart of the gods, who saw the reins,
36~Who did not let an evil-doer escape from him,
37~Who established the assembly of the gods, who rejoiced their hearts,
38~Who subjugated the disobedient, he is the gods' encompassing protection.
39~He made truth to prosper, he uprooted perverse speech,
40~He separated falsehood from truth.
41~As (19) Šazu-Zisi, secondly, let them continually praise him, the subduer of aggressors,
42~Who ousted consternation of from the bodies of the gods, his fathers.
43~(20) Šazu-Suh(rim, thirdly, who extirpated every foe with his weapons,
44~Who confounded their plans and turned them into wind.
45~He snuffed out all the wicked who came against him,
46~Let the gods ever shout acclamations in the assembly.
47~(21) Šazu-Suh(gurim, fourthly, who established success for the gods, his fathers,
48~Who extirpated foes and destroyed their offspring,
49~Who scattered their achievements, leaving no part of them,
50~Let his name be spoken and proclaimed in the land.
51~As (22) Šazu-Zah(rim, fifthly, let future gererations discuss him,
52~The destroyer of every rebel, of all the disobedient,
53~Who brought all the fugitive gods into the shrines,
54~Let this name of his be established.
55~As (23) Šazu-Zah(gurim, sixthly, let them altogether and everywhere worship him,
56~Who himself destroyed all the foes in battle.
57~(24) Enbilulu is he, the lord who supplies them abundantly,
58~Their great chosen one, who provides cereal offerings,
59~Who keeps pasturage and watering in good condition and established it for the land,
60~Who opened watercourses and distributed plentiful water.
61~(25) Enbilulu-Epadun, lord of common land and . . ., let them [call him] secondly,
62~Canal supervisor of heaven and netherworld, who sets the furrow,
Who establishes clean arable land in the open country,
63~Who directs irrigation ditch and canal, and marks out the furrow.
64~As (26) Enbilulu-Gugal, canal supervisor of the water courses of the gods, let them praise him thirdly,
65~Lord of abundance, profusion, and huge stores (of grain),
66~Who provides bounty, who enriches human habitations,
67~Who gives wheat, and brings grain into being.
68~(27) Enbilulu-H(egal, who accumulates abundance for the peoples . . . .
69~Who rains down riches on the broad earth, and supplies abundant vegetation.
70~(28) Sirsir, who heaped up a mountain on top of Tia-mat,
71~Who plundered the corpse of Tia-mat with [his] weapons,
72~The guardian of the land, their trustworthy shepherd,
73~Whose hair is a growing crop, whose turban is a furrow,
74~Who kept crossing the broad Sea in his fury,
75~And kept crossing over the place of her battle as though it were a bridge.
76~(29) Sirsir-Malah( they named him secondly—so be it—
77~Tia-mat was his boat, he was her sailor.
78~(30) Gil, who ever heaps up piles of barley, massive mounds,
79~The creator of grain and flocks, who gives seed for the land.
80~(31) Gilima, who made the bond of the gods firm, who created stability,
81~A snare that overwhelmed them, who yet extended favours.
82~(32) Agilima, the lofty, who snatches off the crown, who takes charge of snow,
83~Who created the earth on the water and made firm the height of heaven.
84~(33) Zulum, who assigns meadows for the gods and divides up what he has created,
85~Who gives incomes and food-offerings, who administers shrines.
86~(34) Mummu, creator of heaven end underworld, who protects refugees,
87~The god who purifies heaven and underworld, secondly Zulummu,
88~In respect of whose strength none other among the gods can equal him.
89~(35) Gišnumunab, creator of all the peoples, who made the world regions,
90~Who destroyed Tia-mat's gods, and made peoples from part of them.
91~(36) Lugalabdubur, the king who scattered the works of Tia-mat, who uprooted her weapons,
92~Whose foundation is secure on the "Fore and Aft".
93~(37) Pagalguenna, foremost of all lords, whose strength is exalted,
94~Who is the greatest among the gods, his brothers, the most noble of them all.
95~(38) Lugaldurmah(, king of the bond of the gods, lord of Durmah(u,
96~Who is the greatest in the royal abode, infinitely more lofty than the other gods.
97~(39) Aranunna, counsellor of Ea, creator of the gods, his fathers,
98~Whom no god can equal in respect of his lordly walk.
99~(40) Dumuduku, who renews for himself his pure abode in Duku,
100~Dumuduku, without whom Lugalduku does not make a decision.
101~(41) Lugalšuanna, the king whose strength is exalted among the gods,
102~The lord, the strength of Anu, he who is supreme, chosen of Anšar.
103~(42) Irugga, who plundered them all in the Sea,
104~Who grasps all wisdom, is comprehensive in understanding.
105~(43) Irqingu, who plundered Qingu in . . . battle,
106~Who directs all decrees and establishes lordship.
107~(44) Kinma, the director of all the gods, who gives counsel,
108~At whose name the gods bend down in reverence as before a hurricane.
109~(45) Dingir-Esiskur—let him take his lofty seat in the House of Benediction,
110~Let the gods bring their presents before him
111~Until he receives their offerings.
112~No one but he accomplishes clever things
113~The four (regions) of black-heads are his creation,
114~Apart from him no god knows the measure of their days.
115~(46) Girru, who makes weapons hard (?),
116~Who accomplished clever things in the battle with Tia-mat,
117~Comprehensive in wisdom, skilled in understanding,
118~A deep mind, that all the gods combined do not understand.
119~Let (47) Addu be his name, let him cover the whole span of heaven,
120~Let him thunder with his pleasant voice upon the earth,
121~May the rumble fill (?) the clouds
And give sustenance to the peoples below.
122~(48) Aša-ru, who, as his name says, mustered the Divine Fates
123~He indeed is the warden of absolutely all peoples.
124~As (49) Ne-beru let him hold the crossing place of heaven and underworld,
125~They should not cross above or below, but should wait for him.
126~Ne-beru is his star, which he caused to shine in the sky,
127~Let him take his stand on the heavenly staircase that they may look at him.
128~Yes, he who constantly crosses the Sea without resting,
129~Let his name be Ne-beru, who grasps her middle,
130~Let him fix the paths of the stars of heaven,
131~Let him shepherd all the gods like sheep,
132~Let him bind Tia-mat and put her life in mortal danger,
133~To generations yet unborn, to distant future days,
134~May he continue unchecked, may he persist into eternity.
135~Since he created the heavens and fashioned the earth,
136~Enlil, the father, called him by his own name, (50) 'Lord of the Lands'.
137~Ea heard the names which all the Igigi called
]38~And his spirit became radiant.
139~"Why! He whose name was extolled by his fathers
140~Let him, like me, be called (51) 'Ea'.
141~Let him control the sum of all my rites,
142~Let him administer all my decrees."
143~With the word "Fifty" the great gods
144~Called his fifty names and assigned him an outstanding position.
145~They should be remembered; a leading figure should expound them,
146~The wise and learned should confer about them,
147~A father should repeat them and teach them to his son,
148~One should explain them to shepherd and herdsman.
149~If one is not negligent to Marduk, the Enlil of the gods,
150~May one's land flourish, and oneself prosper,
151~(For) his word is reliable, his command unchanged,
152~No god can alter the utterance of his mouth.
153~When he looks in fury, he does not relent,
154~When his anger is ablaze, no god can face him.
155~His mind is deep, his spirit is all-embracing,
156~Before whom sin and transgression are sought out.
157~Instruction which a leading figure repeated before him (Marduk):
158~He wrote it down and stored it so that generations to come might hear it.
159~[ . . ] . Marduk, who created the Igigi gods,
160~Though they diminish . . . let them call on his name.
161~. . . . the song of Marduk,
162~Who defeated Tia-mat and took kingship.

Publication:  This translation of Enuma Elish is courtesy of by W.G. Lambert. It is taken from pp. 37-59 of his “Mesopotamian Creation Stories.” The full article is at pp. 15-59 in M.J. Geller and M. Schipper (eds), Imagining Creation (IJS Studies in Judaica 5; Brill Academic Publishers 2007).
Source:  Diverse, among them: L. W. King, Enuma Elish: The Seven Tablets of Creation, London (2. Vol, 1902); Anton Deimel, Enuma eliš (2nd ed., 1936); W. C. Lambert, S. B. Parker, Enuma Eliš. The Babylonian Epic of Creation (1966); Philippe Talon, The Standard Babylonian Creation Myth-Enuma Elish (2005).
Date:  14-12 c. bce (conjectured)
Medium:  clay tablet
Find Spot:  Nineveh, Assur, Kish, Sultantepe, and other find places
See all in category Cosmology